In a closed primary, voters and candidates must declare their party affiliation in order to participate. All unaffiliated candidates and voters are excluded. In a “traditional” closed primary, voters must declare their affiliation at the time of registration. More recently, many states have adopted Relaxed Registration Requirements (3R). In a “3R” closed primary state, voters may declare their party affiliation by requesting a partisan ballot or simply choosing a partisan ballot, as late as the day of the election.